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According to the passage, "phonological awareness" means .......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Research has indicated that dyslexia has biological origin,and most investigators now suspect that dyslexic children read poorly as a result of highly specific language problem,sometimes called "phonological unawareness".Dyslexic children cannot easily learn to read because they have trouble associating printed letters with the sound of speech.A similar problem occurs in congenitally deaf people who have mastered the linguistic complexities and subtleties of sign language but have trouble learning to read.Evidence also exists suggesting that the root cause for much dyslexia is a problem with processing very rapidly changing sensory stimuli.For example,studies have shown that dyslexic children have trouble making accurate distinctions between similar auditory signals.They often cannot hear the difference between speech sounds such as "pah","dah",and "bah".Recently,differences have been noted between the visual pathways pf dyslexics and those of non-dyslexics that suggest a comparable problem with fast changing visual stimuli.Researchers have also found several other neuroanatomical abnormalities in the temporal lobe and in the other areas of the brain.All of these studies are extremely valuable in helping researchers understand the mechanisms underlying reading problems so that dyslexic children can be accurately identified and more efficiently helped.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The main problem of the dyslexic child has to do with the .......... of the incoming information.

پیوست صورت سوال:
Research has indicated that dyslexia has biological origin,and most investigators now suspect that dyslexic children read poorly as a result of highly specific language problem,sometimes called "phonological unawareness".Dyslexic children cannot easily learn to read because they have trouble associating printed letters with the sound of speech.A similar problem occurs in congenitally deaf people who have mastered the linguistic complexities and subtleties of sign language but have trouble learning to read.Evidence also exists suggesting that the root cause for much dyslexia is a problem with processing very rapidly changing sensory stimuli.For example,studies have shown that dyslexic children have trouble making accurate distinctions between similar auditory signals.They often cannot hear the difference between speech sounds such as "pah","dah",and "bah".Recently,differences have been noted between the visual pathways pf dyslexics and those of non-dyslexics that suggest a comparable problem with fast changing visual stimuli.Researchers have also found several other neuroanatomical abnormalities in the temporal lobe and in the other areas of the brain.All of these studies are extremely valuable in helping researchers understand the mechanisms underlying reading problems so that dyslexic children can be accurately identified and more efficiently helped.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
Based on the passage, a dyslexic child is most likely to have problems with ........ sounds.

پیوست صورت سوال:
Research has indicated that dyslexia has biological origin,and most investigators now suspect that dyslexic children read poorly as a result of highly specific language problem,sometimes called "phonological unawareness".Dyslexic children cannot easily learn to read because they have trouble associating printed letters with the sound of speech.A similar problem occurs in congenitally deaf people who have mastered the linguistic complexities and subtleties of sign language but have trouble learning to read.Evidence also exists suggesting that the root cause for much dyslexia is a problem with processing very rapidly changing sensory stimuli.For example,studies have shown that dyslexic children have trouble making accurate distinctions between similar auditory signals.They often cannot hear the difference between speech sounds such as "pah","dah",and "bah".Recently,differences have been noted between the visual pathways pf dyslexics and those of non-dyslexics that suggest a comparable problem with fast changing visual stimuli.Researchers have also found several other neuroanatomical abnormalities in the temporal lobe and in the other areas of the brain.All of these studies are extremely valuable in helping researchers understand the mechanisms underlying reading problems so that dyslexic children can be accurately identified and more efficiently helped.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The most appropriate title for the passage could be ......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Narcolepsy is a disease characterized by malfunctioning sleep mechanics. It can consist of a sudden and uncontrollable bout of sleep during daylight hours and disturbed sleep during nighttime hours. It occurs more often in men than women, and it commonly makes it appearance during adolescence or young adulthood. At least, a half million Americans are believed to be affected by narcolepsy. Narcolepsy can take a number of forms during daylight hours. One common symptom of the disease during daytime hours is a sudden attack of REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep during normal waking hours. This occurs in some people hundreds of times in a single day, while others only have rare occurrences. During a sleep attack, narcoleptics may experience automatic behavior, even though asleep. They may continue automatically performing the activity they were involved in prior to falling asleep. Others experience cataplexy during daytime hours; cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause the head to drop or the knees to wobble in minor attacks or a total collapse in more serious attacks. Cataplexy seems to occur most often in conjunction with intense emotion or excitement.During sleep hours, narcolepsy can also manifest itself in a variety of ways. During the transitional phase that precedes the onset of sleep, it is common for hallucinations to occur. These hallucinations known as hypnagogic phenomena consist of realistic perception of sights and sounds during the semi-conscious state between wakefulness and sleep, resulting in extremely fragmented and restless sleep. Then, upon waking, a narcoleptic may experience sleep paralysis, the inability to move, perhaps for several minutes, immediately after waking.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
A person would be most likely to develop narcolepsy around the age of ........... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Narcolepsy is a disease characterized by malfunctioning sleep mechanics. It can consist of a sudden and uncontrollable bout of sleep during daylight hours and disturbed sleep during nighttime hours. It occurs more often in men than women, and it commonly makes it appearance during adolescence or young adulthood. At least, a half million Americans are believed to be affected by narcolepsy. Narcolepsy can take a number of forms during daylight hours. One common symptom of the disease during daytime hours is a sudden attack of REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep during normal waking hours. This occurs in some people hundreds of times in a single day, while others only have rare occurrences. During a sleep attack, narcoleptics may experience automatic behavior, even though asleep. They may continue automatically performing the activity they were involved in prior to falling asleep. Others experience cataplexy during daytime hours; cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause the head to drop or the knees to wobble in minor attacks or a total collapse in more serious attacks. Cataplexy seems to occur most often in conjunction with intense emotion or excitement.During sleep hours, narcolepsy can also manifest itself in a variety of ways. During the transitional phase that precedes the onset of sleep, it is common for hallucinations to occur. These hallucinations known as hypnagogic phenomena consist of realistic perception of sights and sounds during the semi-conscious state between wakefulness and sleep, resulting in extremely fragmented and restless sleep. Then, upon waking, a narcoleptic may experience sleep paralysis, the inability to move, perhaps for several minutes, immediately after waking.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
A complete collapse is involved in .......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Narcolepsy is a disease characterized by malfunctioning sleep mechanics. It can consist of a sudden and uncontrollable bout of sleep during daylight hours and disturbed sleep during nighttime hours. It occurs more often in men than women, and it commonly makes it appearance during adolescence or young adulthood. At least, a half million Americans are believed to be affected by narcolepsy. Narcolepsy can take a number of forms during daylight hours. One common symptom of the disease during daytime hours is a sudden attack of REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep during normal waking hours. This occurs in some people hundreds of times in a single day, while others only have rare occurrences. During a sleep attack, narcoleptics may experience automatic behavior, even though asleep. They may continue automatically performing the activity they were involved in prior to falling asleep. Others experience cataplexy during daytime hours; cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause the head to drop or the knees to wobble in minor attacks or a total collapse in more serious attacks. Cataplexy seems to occur most often in conjunction with intense emotion or excitement.During sleep hours, narcolepsy can also manifest itself in a variety of ways. During the transitional phase that precedes the onset of sleep, it is common for hallucinations to occur. These hallucinations known as hypnagogic phenomena consist of realistic perception of sights and sounds during the semi-conscious state between wakefulness and sleep, resulting in extremely fragmented and restless sleep. Then, upon waking, a narcoleptic may experience sleep paralysis, the inability to move, perhaps for several minutes, immediately after waking.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
Hypnogogic phenomena most likely occur ......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Narcolepsy is a disease characterized by malfunctioning sleep mechanics. It can consist of a sudden and uncontrollable bout of sleep during daylight hours and disturbed sleep during nighttime hours. It occurs more often in men than women, and it commonly makes it appearance during adolescence or young adulthood. At least, a half million Americans are believed to be affected by narcolepsy. Narcolepsy can take a number of forms during daylight hours. One common symptom of the disease during daytime hours is a sudden attack of REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep during normal waking hours. This occurs in some people hundreds of times in a single day, while others only have rare occurrences. During a sleep attack, narcoleptics may experience automatic behavior, even though asleep. They may continue automatically performing the activity they were involved in prior to falling asleep. Others experience cataplexy during daytime hours; cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause the head to drop or the knees to wobble in minor attacks or a total collapse in more serious attacks. Cataplexy seems to occur most often in conjunction with intense emotion or excitement.During sleep hours, narcolepsy can also manifest itself in a variety of ways. During the transitional phase that precedes the onset of sleep, it is common for hallucinations to occur. These hallucinations known as hypnagogic phenomena consist of realistic perception of sights and sounds during the semi-conscious state between wakefulness and sleep, resulting in extremely fragmented and restless sleep. Then, upon waking, a narcoleptic may experience sleep paralysis, the inability to move, perhaps for several minutes, immediately after waking.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
Sleep paralysis is most likely to occur following ......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Narcolepsy is a disease characterized by malfunctioning sleep mechanics. It can consist of a sudden and uncontrollable bout of sleep during daylight hours and disturbed sleep during nighttime hours. It occurs more often in men than women, and it commonly makes it appearance during adolescence or young adulthood. At least, a half million Americans are believed to be affected by narcolepsy. Narcolepsy can take a number of forms during daylight hours. One common symptom of the disease during daytime hours is a sudden attack of REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep during normal waking hours. This occurs in some people hundreds of times in a single day, while others only have rare occurrences. During a sleep attack, narcoleptics may experience automatic behavior, even though asleep. They may continue automatically performing the activity they were involved in prior to falling asleep. Others experience cataplexy during daytime hours; cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone that may cause the head to drop or the knees to wobble in minor attacks or a total collapse in more serious attacks. Cataplexy seems to occur most often in conjunction with intense emotion or excitement.During sleep hours, narcolepsy can also manifest itself in a variety of ways. During the transitional phase that precedes the onset of sleep, it is common for hallucinations to occur. These hallucinations known as hypnagogic phenomena consist of realistic perception of sights and sounds during the semi-conscious state between wakefulness and sleep, resulting in extremely fragmented and restless sleep. Then, upon waking, a narcoleptic may experience sleep paralysis, the inability to move, perhaps for several minutes, immediately after waking.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
According to this passage, it is NOT suggested that ............... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Adults of different ages encounter different sets of life changes as they move through the normal role acquisitions and losses of adulthood. But at every age, high levels of life change are linked to higher rates of physical illness and emotional disturbances such as depression. However, there are personal and social resources that may buffer the individual from the potential compact of stress. Such resources may be collectively called resistance resources. Central among these is availability of social support. Social support can be defined as the receipt of affirmation and aid from others. In many early studies, it was measured only by such objective measures as material status and frequently of reported contact with friends and relatives. Recent studies suggest that subjective perception of the adequacy of social support is more strongly related to well-being than our most objective measures. It is not the objective amount of contact with others that is important, but how the contact is interpreted.It is clear that adults with adequate social support have lower risk of disease, death, and depression than do adults with weaker social networks. The beneficial effect of social support is even clearer when an individual is under a high stress. That is, the negative effect of stress on health and happiness is smaller for individuals with adequate social support.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
It can be concluded from the second paragraph that ................ .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Adults of different ages encounter different sets of life changes as they move through the normal role acquisitions and losses of adulthood. But at every age, high levels of life change are linked to higher rates of physical illness and emotional disturbances such as depression. However, there are personal and social resources that may buffer the individual from the potential compact of stress. Such resources may be collectively called resistance resources. Central among these is availability of social support. Social support can be defined as the receipt of affirmation and aid from others. In many early studies, it was measured only by such objective measures as material status and frequently of reported contact with friends and relatives. Recent studies suggest that subjective perception of the adequacy of social support is more strongly related to well-being than our most objective measures. It is not the objective amount of contact with others that is important, but how the contact is interpreted.It is clear that adults with adequate social support have lower risk of disease, death, and depression than do adults with weaker social networks. The beneficial effect of social support is even clearer when an individual is under a high stress. That is, the negative effect of stress on health and happiness is smaller for individuals with adequate social support.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
A person with strong social support most probably experiences ................. .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Adults of different ages encounter different sets of life changes as they move through the normal role acquisitions and losses of adulthood. But at every age, high levels of life change are linked to higher rates of physical illness and emotional disturbances such as depression. However, there are personal and social resources that may buffer the individual from the potential compact of stress. Such resources may be collectively called resistance resources. Central among these is availability of social support. Social support can be defined as the receipt of affirmation and aid from others. In many early studies, it was measured only by such objective measures as material status and frequently of reported contact with friends and relatives. Recent studies suggest that subjective perception of the adequacy of social support is more strongly related to well-being than our most objective measures. It is not the objective amount of contact with others that is important, but how the contact is interpreted.It is clear that adults with adequate social support have lower risk of disease, death, and depression than do adults with weaker social networks. The beneficial effect of social support is even clearer when an individual is under a high stress. That is, the negative effect of stress on health and happiness is smaller for individuals with adequate social support.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The text claims that critical thinking in scientific doubt is a process leading to ............ .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. Within the framework of scientific doubt, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to a context only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, ecological thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is important because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias propaganda, selfdeception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and ultivation of intellectual traits.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The use of critical thinking concepts is .............. .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. Within the framework of scientific doubt, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to a context only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, ecological thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is important because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias propaganda, selfdeception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and ultivation of intellectual traits.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
Sociological, ecological, musical thinking, etc. are mentioned to show that critical thinking principles .............. .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. Within the framework of scientific doubt, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to a context only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, ecological thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is important because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias propaganda, selfdeception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and ultivation of intellectual traits.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
In ordinary thinking, the writer believes that one is more likely to ............ .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. Within the framework of scientific doubt, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to a context only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, ecological thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is important because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias propaganda, selfdeception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and ultivation of intellectual traits.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
Egocentrism, prejudice, misinformation, etc. are mentioned as ................ .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. Within the framework of scientific doubt, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to a context only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, ecological thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is important because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias propaganda, selfdeception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and ultivation of intellectual traits.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The writer suggests that critical thinking should ............... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines. Within the framework of scientific doubt, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to a context only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, ecological thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is important because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias propaganda, selfdeception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and ultivation of intellectual traits.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The best topic for this passage could be ................ .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Health problems associated with the consumption of sugar are numerous. One such risk to the consumption of sugar is obesity. In the Western world where the level of physical activity has reduced and the level of sugar has increased, sugar is definitely a weapon that will result in excess weight. Weight gain from sugar is indicated in hardening in the arteries which directly contributes to heart disease. Furthermore, sugar definitely plays a role in developing some types of diabetes. Sugar, particularly sugar in fruit juice, is also known to cause tooth decay. Consumption of sugar may also make one more likely to suffer from gum disease. Moreover, sugar plays a role in how we behave as well. It has been suggested that excess sugar may cause depression. It may also result in hyperactivity or mood swings as one drops from sugar highs to sugar lows. Recent studies also suggest that too much sugar can lower the body’s natural immune response. People who consume a lot of sugar are more likely to get bacterial infection than are people who avoid sugar. Sugar is also indicated in digestive problems, because too much sugar can cause higher acid amounts in the stomach. This can lead to diarrhea, particularly in those who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome. Given the risks involved in consuming sugar, it would make sense to try to keep sugar intake to a minimum.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
It is implied in this paragraph that ................ .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Health problems associated with the consumption of sugar are numerous. One such risk to the consumption of sugar is obesity. In the Western world where the level of physical activity has reduced and the level of sugar has increased, sugar is definitely a weapon that will result in excess weight. Weight gain from sugar is indicated in hardening in the arteries which directly contributes to heart disease. Furthermore, sugar definitely plays a role in developing some types of diabetes. Sugar, particularly sugar in fruit juice, is also known to cause tooth decay. Consumption of sugar may also make one more likely to suffer from gum disease. Moreover, sugar plays a role in how we behave as well. It has been suggested that excess sugar may cause depression. It may also result in hyperactivity or mood swings as one drops from sugar highs to sugar lows. Recent studies also suggest that too much sugar can lower the body’s natural immune response. People who consume a lot of sugar are more likely to get bacterial infection than are people who avoid sugar. Sugar is also indicated in digestive problems, because too much sugar can cause higher acid amounts in the stomach. This can lead to diarrhea, particularly in those who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome. Given the risks involved in consuming sugar, it would make sense to try to keep sugar intake to a minimum.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The passage implies that ................. .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Drug- seeking patients may be skilled in describing symptoms of pain, anxiety or insomnia in order to obtain a prescription. Several studies have shown that medical graduates are poorly prepared to deal with patients presenting with possible drug dependence. A focus group study of general practitioners in Australia found that they had significant problems in determining the legitimacy of such requests. Furthermore, when they knew (or strongly suspected) that patients were drug-dependent and were exhibiting drug-seeking behavior, they found the interaction unpleasant and had difficulties in offering care which did not involve the prescription of a psychoactive drug. The relatively poor performance of practitioners, and hence the need to enhance their knowledge and skills for effective interaction with drug-seeking patients, was highlighted in a recent study. An independent assessment of the management of 15 patients with injuries subject to compensation claims found that all 15 patients were independently assessed as opioid-dependent, yet only one patient had a previous history of drug dependency before injury. Authorization to prescribe opioids was sought on average 12 months after regular visits had been established, despite a mandatory legal requirement for authorization of the continued provision of opioids for longer than two months, and for all patients who are dependent.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
We understand from the passage that prescribing opioids needs ................. .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Drug- seeking patients may be skilled in describing symptoms of pain, anxiety or insomnia in order to obtain a prescription. Several studies have shown that medical graduates are poorly prepared to deal with patients presenting with possible drug dependence. A focus group study of general practitioners in Australia found that they had significant problems in determining the legitimacy of such requests. Furthermore, when they knew (or strongly suspected) that patients were drug-dependent and were exhibiting drug-seeking behavior, they found the interaction unpleasant and had difficulties in offering care which did not involve the prescription of a psychoactive drug. The relatively poor performance of practitioners, and hence the need to enhance their knowledge and skills for effective interaction with drug-seeking patients, was highlighted in a recent study. An independent assessment of the management of 15 patients with injuries subject to compensation claims found that all 15 patients were independently assessed as opioid-dependent, yet only one patient had a previous history of drug dependency before injury. Authorization to prescribe opioids was sought on average 12 months after regular visits had been established, despite a mandatory legal requirement for authorization of the continued provision of opioids for longer than two months, and for all patients who are dependent.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
We read that patients with injuries ................. .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Drug- seeking patients may be skilled in describing symptoms of pain, anxiety or insomnia in order to obtain a prescription. Several studies have shown that medical graduates are poorly prepared to deal with patients presenting with possible drug dependence. A focus group study of general practitioners in Australia found that they had significant problems in determining the legitimacy of such requests. Furthermore, when they knew (or strongly suspected) that patients were drug-dependent and were exhibiting drug-seeking behavior, they found the interaction unpleasant and had difficulties in offering care which did not involve the prescription of a psychoactive drug. The relatively poor performance of practitioners, and hence the need to enhance their knowledge and skills for effective interaction with drug-seeking patients, was highlighted in a recent study. An independent assessment of the management of 15 patients with injuries subject to compensation claims found that all 15 patients were independently assessed as opioid-dependent, yet only one patient had a previous history of drug dependency before injury. Authorization to prescribe opioids was sought on average 12 months after regular visits had been established, despite a mandatory legal requirement for authorization of the continued provision of opioids for longer than two months, and for all patients who are dependent.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
According to the passage, general practitioners ...................... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Drug- seeking patients may be skilled in describing symptoms of pain, anxiety or insomnia in order to obtain a prescription. Several studies have shown that medical graduates are poorly prepared to deal with patients presenting with possible drug dependence. A focus group study of general practitioners in Australia found that they had significant problems in determining the legitimacy of such requests. Furthermore, when they knew (or strongly suspected) that patients were drug-dependent and were exhibiting drug-seeking behavior, they found the interaction unpleasant and had difficulties in offering care which did not involve the prescription of a psychoactive drug. The relatively poor performance of practitioners, and hence the need to enhance their knowledge and skills for effective interaction with drug-seeking patients, was highlighted in a recent study. An independent assessment of the management of 15 patients with injuries subject to compensation claims found that all 15 patients were independently assessed as opioid-dependent, yet only one patient had a previous history of drug dependency before injury. Authorization to prescribe opioids was sought on average 12 months after regular visits had been established, despite a mandatory legal requirement for authorization of the continued provision of opioids for longer than two months, and for all patients who are dependent.
تست
مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
The passage is generally ................... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Drug- seeking patients may be skilled in describing symptoms of pain, anxiety or insomnia in order to obtain a prescription. Several studies have shown that medical graduates are poorly prepared to deal with patients presenting with possible drug dependence. A focus group study of general practitioners in Australia found that they had significant problems in determining the legitimacy of such requests. Furthermore, when they knew (or strongly suspected) that patients were drug-dependent and were exhibiting drug-seeking behavior, they found the interaction unpleasant and had difficulties in offering care which did not involve the prescription of a psychoactive drug. The relatively poor performance of practitioners, and hence the need to enhance their knowledge and skills for effective interaction with drug-seeking patients, was highlighted in a recent study. An independent assessment of the management of 15 patients with injuries subject to compensation claims found that all 15 patients were independently assessed as opioid-dependent, yet only one patient had a previous history of drug dependency before injury. Authorization to prescribe opioids was sought on average 12 months after regular visits had been established, despite a mandatory legal requirement for authorization of the continued provision of opioids for longer than two months, and for all patients who are dependent.
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According to the passage, human micro biota is .......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Nowhere in the study of human biology are basic concepts changing more rapidly that with respect to the human microbiota. Micro-organisms were first shown to cause disease in the 1800s, and after this finding, the popular and scientific views of the microbial world became dominated by the quest to understand prevent and cure microbial disese. This led to millions of lives being saved through improved hygiene, vaccinations and antibiotics. Gene-sequence-based approaches have recently allowed complex microbial communities to be characterzed more comprehensively and have remover the constraint of being able to identify only microorganisms that can be cultured, greatly increasing knowledge about commensal microorganism and mutualistic microorganisms of humans(that is, organisms in a relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unharmed, and organisms in a relationship in which both partners benefit, respectively), as well as human pathogens. Researchers are now finding that host-microbe interactions are essential to many aspects of normal mammalian, physiology, ranging from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Whith the availability of new tools to investigate complex microbial communities and the expanded appreciation for the importance of the human indigenous microbiota, this is an opportune time to apply ecological and evolutionary principles to improve the currenr understanding of both health and disease.
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n the second line, "this finding " refers to

پیوست صورت سوال:
Nowhere in the study of human biology are basic concepts changing more rapidly that with respect to the human microbiota. Micro-organisms were first shown to cause disease in the 1800s, and after this finding, the popular and scientific views of the microbial world became dominated by the quest to understand prevent and cure microbial disese. This led to millions of lives being saved through improved hygiene, vaccinations and antibiotics. Gene-sequence-based approaches have recently allowed complex microbial communities to be characterzed more comprehensively and have remover the constraint of being able to identify only microorganisms that can be cultured, greatly increasing knowledge about commensal microorganism and mutualistic microorganisms of humans(that is, organisms in a relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unharmed, and organisms in a relationship in which both partners benefit, respectively), as well as human pathogens. Researchers are now finding that host-microbe interactions are essential to many aspects of normal mammalian, physiology, ranging from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Whith the availability of new tools to investigate complex microbial communities and the expanded appreciation for the importance of the human indigenous microbiota, this is an opportune time to apply ecological and evolutionary principles to improve the currenr understanding of both health and disease.
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Regarding host-microbe relationship, we learn that ………… .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Nowhere in the study of human biology are basic concepts changing more rapidly that with respect to the human microbiota. Micro-organisms were first shown to cause disease in the 1800s, and after this finding, the popular and scientific views of the microbial world became dominated by the quest to understand prevent and cure microbial disese. This led to millions of lives being saved through improved hygiene, vaccinations and antibiotics. Gene-sequence-based approaches have recently allowed complex microbial communities to be characterzed more comprehensively and have remover the constraint of being able to identify only microorganisms that can be cultured, greatly increasing knowledge about commensal microorganism and mutualistic microorganisms of humans(that is, organisms in a relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unharmed, and organisms in a relationship in which both partners benefit, respectively), as well as human pathogens. Researchers are now finding that host-microbe interactions are essential to many aspects of normal mammalian, physiology, ranging from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Whith the availability of new tools to investigate complex microbial communities and the expanded appreciation for the importance of the human indigenous microbiota, this is an opportune time to apply ecological and evolutionary principles to improve the currenr understanding of both health and disease.
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According to the passage, with the advent of new technology ........... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Nowhere in the study of human biology are basic concepts changing more rapidly that with respect to the human microbiota. Micro-organisms were first shown to cause disease in the 1800s, and after this finding, the popular and scientific views of the microbial world became dominated by the quest to understand prevent and cure microbial disese. This led to millions of lives being saved through improved hygiene, vaccinations and antibiotics. Gene-sequence-based approaches have recently allowed complex microbial communities to be characterzed more comprehensively and have remover the constraint of being able to identify only microorganisms that can be cultured, greatly increasing knowledge about commensal microorganism and mutualistic microorganisms of humans(that is, organisms in a relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unharmed, and organisms in a relationship in which both partners benefit, respectively), as well as human pathogens. Researchers are now finding that host-microbe interactions are essential to many aspects of normal mammalian, physiology, ranging from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Whith the availability of new tools to investigate complex microbial communities and the expanded appreciation for the importance of the human indigenous microbiota, this is an opportune time to apply ecological and evolutionary principles to improve the currenr understanding of both health and disease.
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مشاهده پاسخ صحیح
It is said that mutualistic microorganisms ……… .

پیوست صورت سوال:
Nowhere in the study of human biology are basic concepts changing more rapidly that with respect to the human microbiota. Micro-organisms were first shown to cause disease in the 1800s, and after this finding, the popular and scientific views of the microbial world became dominated by the quest to understand prevent and cure microbial disese. This led to millions of lives being saved through improved hygiene, vaccinations and antibiotics. Gene-sequence-based approaches have recently allowed complex microbial communities to be characterzed more comprehensively and have remover the constraint of being able to identify only microorganisms that can be cultured, greatly increasing knowledge about commensal microorganism and mutualistic microorganisms of humans(that is, organisms in a relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unharmed, and organisms in a relationship in which both partners benefit, respectively), as well as human pathogens. Researchers are now finding that host-microbe interactions are essential to many aspects of normal mammalian, physiology, ranging from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Whith the availability of new tools to investigate complex microbial communities and the expanded appreciation for the importance of the human indigenous microbiota, this is an opportune time to apply ecological and evolutionary principles to improve the currenr understanding of both health and disease.
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The disease mentioned in the passage .......... .

پیوست صورت سوال:
verweight and obesity in children is epidemic in North America and internationally. Approximately 22 million children under 5 years of age are overweight across the world. In the United States, the number of overweight children and adolescents has doubled in the last two to three decades, and similar doubling rates are being observed worldwide, including in developing countries and regions where an increase in westernizatiorr of behavioral and dietary lifestyles is evident. Complications associated with obesity and overweight are similar in children as. in the adult population. Elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and a higher prevalence of factors associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes appear as frequent complications in the overweight and obese pediatric population. In some populations, type 2 diabetes is now the dominant form of diabetes in children and adolescents. Disturbingly, obesity in childhood, particularly in adolescence, is a key predictor for obesity in adulthood.Moreover, morbidity and mortality in the adult population is increased in individuals who were overweight in adolescence, even if they lose the extra weight during adulthood. Although the cause of obesity in children is similar to that of adults (i.e. more energy intake vs. energy utilized), emerging data suggest associations between the influence of maternal and fetal factors, during intrauterine growth and growth during the first year of life, on risk of later development of adult obesity and its complications.
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